Intellectual Property (IP) refers to the expressed creation of the human mind. Examples include brands, inventions, designs, songs and other intellectual creations.
The term Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) refers to a bundle of exclusive rights. IPRs are granted by the state to creators for defined categories of creations that satisfy a threshold level of newness. The rights are granted with exceptions and limitations.
There are several types or forms of IPRs. They are Copyright and Related Rights, Patents, Utility Certificates, Industrial Designs, Trade Marks and Service Marks, Geographical Indications, Layout Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits, New Plant Varieties and Trade Secrets.
A Patent is a bundle of exclusive rights. It is granted by the state for new inventions which are products or processes that either provide a new way of doing something, or offer a new technical solution to a problem. It provides protection for the invention, preventing others from manufacturing, using and trading it. The owner is required to disclose technical information to the public sufficient for persons with average skill in the art to manufacture and use the technology.
A trade mark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one trader from those of other traders.
A geographical indication (GI) is any sign or symbol that identifies goods as emanating from any specific region or location of a country that gives the goods its known quality, reputation or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that region or locality.
Any composition of lines or colours, any three-dimensional form or any material whether or not associated with lines or colours, is deemed to be an industrial design where such composition, form or material gives a special appearance to a product of industry or handicraft.
This is synonymous with “topography” and means the three-dimensional disposition, however expressed, of the elements, at least one of which is an active element, and of some or all of the inter-connections of an integrated circuit, or such a three-dimensional disposition prepared for an integrated circuit intended for manufacture.
An exclusive property right which protects the achievement of breeders of new plant varieties, on the basis of a set of uniform and clearly defined principles.
A property right which subsists in literary and artistic works that are original intellectual creations in the literary and artistic domain.
Any act or practice, in the course of industrial or commercial activities, that is contrary to honest practices as outlined in the Protection Against Unfair Competition Act, 1996, constitutes an act of unfair competition.
A Trade Secret is any information which:-